About climate: Soc Trang is located in a tropical climate affected by monsoon. Every year, there are a distinct dry season and a rainy season. Rainy season is from May to October and dry season is from November to April next year. The annual average temperature is 26.80C; there are rarely storms and floods. The average rainfall in one year is 1,864 mm, most concentrated in August, September and October. The average humidity is 83%, favorable for rice and other crops to develop.
About land and soil: Soc Trang has a total natural land area of 331,176.29 ha. Soc Trang's soil is highly fertile, suitable for the development of water rice, short-term industrial crops such as sugarcane, soybeans, corn, vegetables such as onions, garlic and fruit trees such as grapefruit, mango, durian... Currently, agricultural land is 276,677 ha, accounting for 82.89%; in which, agricultural production land is 205,748 ha (62.13%), forestry land with forest 11,356 ha (accounting for 3.43%), aquaculture land 54,373 ha (16.42%), salt making land and other agricultural land accounts for 0.97%. Of the total 278,154 ha of agricultural land, 144,156 ha is used for rice cultivation, 21,401 ha of other annual crops and 40,191 ha is used for perennial crops and fruit trees. Particularly, non-agricultural land is 53,963 ha and 2,536 ha of unused land (data updated according to Soc Trang Statistical Yearbook 2008).
Soc Trang soil can be divided into 6 main groups: Firstly, the sandy soil group with 8,491 ha, including relatively high sand dunes, from 1.2 - 2m, with little organic and inorganic composition, is mainly fine sand and sandy soil mixed with soil, can be grown some vegetables. Secondly, the alluvial soil group with 6,372 ha which is suitable for growing rice crops and specialty fruit trees. Thirstly, lowsoil group with 1,076 ha, in low-lying areas, is usually grown one-crop rice. Fourthly, saline soil group with 158,547 ha which can be divided into many types: high saline soil, medium saline soil, little saline soil, shrimp saline soil, mangrove (tidal flooded) in which high saline soil occupies a large area of 75,016 ha, suitable for growing rice, vegetables, fruit trees, short- and long-term industrial plants...; other types of saline soil are mainly used to grow rice in combination with aquaculture. Fifthly, acid soil group with 75,823 ha, in which it is divided into 2 types of active acid soil and potential acid soil, is used according to the method of multi-cultivation or rice cultivation combined with aquaculture. Finally, the group of artificial land which is 46,146 ha.
Although there are still some limitations in natural conditions such as lack of fresh water and saline intrusion in the dry season, some areas contaminated with alum, but the land use in Soc Trang has many basic advantages for development in diversified agriculture, fishery and formation of eco-tourism areas based on those advantages.
In particular, Soc Trang also has a strip of islands in Ke Sach, Long Phu and Cu Lao Dung districts stretching to the estuaries with many tropical fruit trees and fresh air such as My Phuoc dune, Song Phung tourist area, Cu Lao Dung island... It is an ideal place to develop eco-tourism.
About topograpical features: Soc Trang has low and relatively flat terrain. The absolute height of soil reinforcement is from 0.4 - 1.5m, the slope changes about 45 cm/km in length. In general, the topography of Soc Trang province is in the form of a basin, high in the Hau River and in the East Sea, gradually lowering inward. The lowest areas are in the West and Northwest. The sub-terrain has irregular ripples, alternating with relatively high terrain sand dunes and low-lying areas contaminated with saline and alum. These are sedimentary traces of the period of forward and backward sea movement, creating sand dunes and depressions in My Tu district, Soc Trang town, My Xuyen, Long Phu districts and Vinh Chau town. The alkaline soil has a basin in the west and along the Cai Con canal with a very low elevation, from 0 to 0.5m. In the rainy season, it is often flooded, affecting production activities and people's life in the area. The islet on Hau River also has a low elevation, often flooded during high tide. Therefore, to ensure production, there must be a system of dikes to prevent floods.
About rivers: Soc Trang has a system of canals which are influenced by the tide regime up and down twice a day; the tide level fluctuates on average from 0.4m to 1m. The tides of the sea are not only associated with the production and daily activities of local residents, but also bring many interesting things to tourists when visiting, traveling and learning about the natural forest ecosystem. Thanks to the special terrain, Hau river flows into the Southeast Sea, an area reserves much fish and shrimp, Soc Trang has favorable conditions for the development of a general marine economy.
Forest and marine resources: Soc Trang also has forest resources with an area of 11,356 ha with the main trees: Melaleuca, cork, mangroves, and water coconuts distributed in 4 districts of Vinh Chau, Long Phu, My Tu and Cu Lao Dung. The forest of Soc Trang belongs to the coastal mangrove forest system and the Melaleuca forest in the alkaline soil area.
Soc Trang has 72 km of coastline with 02 large estuaries, Tran De and Thanh, with significant sources of seafood including bottom fish, floating fish and shrimp. Soc Trang has many advantages in developing a general marine economy, aquatic products, marine agriculture and forestry, marine industry, trading ports, fishing ports, seaport services, import and export, tourism and sea transportation.